There are several different types of case studies, as well as several types of subjects of case studies. We will investigate each type in this article. It is also possible for types of case studies to overlap each other. Each of the following types of cases can be used in any field or discipline. Whether it is psychology, business or the arts, the type of case study can apply to any field.
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A case study is a particular method of qualitative research. Rather than using large samples and following a rigid protocol to examine a limited number of variables, case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event: a case. They provide a systematic way of looking at events, collecting data , analyzing information , and reporting the results. As a result the researcher may gain a sharpened understanding of why the instance happened as it did, and what might become important to look at more extensively in future research. Case studies lend themselves especially to generating rather than testing hypotheses.
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A case—control study also known as case—referent study is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute. A case—control study produces only an odds ratio, which is an inferior measure of strength of association compared to relative risk. The case—control is a type of epidemiological observational study. An observational study is a study in which subjects are not randomized to the exposed or unexposed groups, rather the subjects are observed in order to determine both their exposure and their outcome status and the exposure status is thus not determined by the researcher. Porta's Dictionary of Epidemiology defines the case—control study as: an observational epidemiological study of persons with the disease or another outcome variable of interest and a suitable control group of persons without the disease comparison group, reference group.
A case study involves an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a particular case or cases, within a real-world context. Generally, a case study can highlight nearly any individual, group, organization, event, belief system, or action. Case study research has been extensively practiced in both the social and natural sciences. As with other social science methods, no single research design dominates case study research.