Literature review on soil characterization

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This chapter is concerned with the review of the relevant literature on characterization and thematic study. It provides the readers with the most important information about the different techniques applied in the analyses of characters and themes. It also clarifies the principal terms used in the in the analysis of a literally work. The details given in this chapter are from numerous literary books, essays, articles as well as courses consulted for a good achievement of this study.

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Increased industrial and domestic activities have induced pollution, global warming and resources depletion, calling for advanced remediation techniques. For instance, biochar synthesized from waste materials is an ecofriendly and low-cost material for the remediation of contaminants, yet raw biochar is poorly efficient. Therefore, biochar properties can be improved by ultrasonication, metal impregnation, surfactant modification, microwave, electrochemical and plasma treatment techniques. Biochar properties include adsorption capacity, active surface area, uniform distribution of pores, chemical attributes and mechanical stability. For example, modified cornstalk biochar displays mercury adsorption capacity of Engineered biochar can act as an ecofriendly soil amendment and a highly efficient tool to recover contaminants from water systems.

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The formation and propagation of surface desiccation cracks in vegetated infrastructures involve coupled factors including unsaturated soil mechanics, atmospheric conditions and vegetation parameters. Vegetation induces a "Love-hate" relationship in the development of desiccation cracks due to plant induced suction as well as root reinforcement. The objective of the paper is to provide a state-of-the-art that comprehensively reviews the desiccation process in context of the soil-water-plant interaction together. At first, basic theories of crack initiation and propagation in literature are discussed in the context of unsaturated soil mechanics. Thereafter, influence of vegetation on soil cracking is discussed systematically based on transpiration induced suction, root reinforcement, plantation strategy, root exudate and basic plant traits.
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