Hawaii hot spot case study

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Base map from "This Dynamic Planet. The Hawaiian Islands are the tops of gigantic volcanic mountains formed by countless eruptions of fluid lava over several million years; some tower more than 30, feet above the seafloor. These volcanic peaks rising above the ocean surface represent only the tiny, visible part of an immense submarine ridge, the Hawaiian Ridge—Emperor Seamount Chain, composed of more than 80 large volcanoes. The length of the Hawaiian Ridge segment alone, between the Island of Hawai'i and Midway Island to the northwest, is about 1, miles, roughly the distance from Washington, D.

New explanation for Hawaiian hot spot

This Is Our Geog Hotspot: Formation- Case Study: Hawaiian Islands

May 27, report. The mantle plume theory was developed by US scientist Jason Morgan in and suggests the tectonic plate is sliding above a stationary plume of molten rock lying deep within the mantle, with upwellings of lava forming undersea volcanoes that eventually grew upwards to become islands. As the tectonic plate continued to move the volcanoes were extinguished and some of the islands eroded and dropped below sea level. The result was the Hawaiian-Emperor seamount chain, which stretches from the Aleutian Trench in the northwest to the present-day Hawaiian islands in the southeast. The new research, by a team led by seismologist Dr Robert van der Hilst of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT imaged the scattering of seismic waves from discontinuities in the mantle to try to identify plumes and other subterranean structures. Discontinuities are formed when the rocks in the mantle are squeezed together at such high pressures that they abruptly reorganize themselves. They included data from almost , reflected seismic signals along with seismic data from around 4, earthquakes in the Pacific region.

Hawaii Case Study- Hotspots

Hawaii may be paradise for vacationers, but for geologists it has long been a puzzle. Plate tectonic theory readily explains the existence of volcanoes at boundaries where plates split apart or collide, but mid-plate volcanoes such as those that built the Hawaiian island chain have been harder to fit into the theory. A classic explanation, proposed nearly 40 years ago, has been that magma is supplied to the volcanoes from upwellings of hot rock, called mantle "plumes," that originate deep in the Earth's mantle. Evidence for these deep structures has been sketchy, however.
Over millions of years, these layers form mountains of volcanic rock that eventually break the surface of the Pacific Ocean , forming islands. As the Pacific Plate very slowly moves across the hot spot, new islands are formed. It took 80 million years to create the current chain of Hawaiian islands.
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